nanotechnology (rus. нанотехнология) — today, this term does not have a single, generally accepted definition. To RUSNANO, nanotechnologies mean a complex of processes and techniques used to research, design and manufacture materials, devices and systems enabling object-oriented control and management of structure, chemical composition and interaction of their nanoscale components (elements with at least one of their dimensions on the scale of 100 nm or smaller), which results in improvement or development of additional operating and/or consumer characteristics and parameters of products.


The term “nanotechnology” was first used by Professor Norio Taniguchi in his report titled “On the Basic Concept of Nanotechnology” at an international conference in Tokyo in 1974. This term was originally used with a narrow meaning to denote processes enabling the high-precision treatment of surfaces using high-energy electron, photon and ion beams, film deposition and superfine etching. Today, the term “nanotechnology” has a broad meaning and jointly refers to processes, techniques and systems of machines and devices engineered to perform high-precision operations on the scale of several nanometres.

Nanotechnology objects may be represented by both low-dimensional objects with at least one of their dimensions in the nanoscale (e.g., nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanotubes, nanofibres or nanofilms) and macroscopic objects (three-dimensional materials, individual components of devices and systems) whose structure is designed artificially and modified on the level of individual nanoscale elements. We say that a device or system was manufactured using nanotechnology if at least one of its major components is a nanotechnology object, i.e. at least one of the manufacturing stages resulted in the fabrication of a nanotechnology object.


  • Goldt Ilya V.
  • Gusev Alexander I.


  1. Gusev A. I. Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, and Nanotechnologies (in Russian) // Fizmatlit, Moscow (2007) - 416 pp.
  2. Gusev A. I., Rempel A. A. Nanocrystalline Materials. — Cambridge: Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2004. — 351 p.

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