"top–down" nanotechnology (rus. нанотехнология типа "сверху–вниз") — a technology used to produce nanostructured materials in which the nanoscale size of particles is achieved by milling larger particles, powders or grains of solid state matter.


For example, this technology includes techniques used to produce compact nanomaterials and nanopowders from large halfway products, such as crystallisation of amorphous alloys, severe plastic deformation electric explosion or ordering of solid solutions and nonstoichiometric compounds.


  • Gusev Alexander I.


  1. Gusev A. I. Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, and Nanotechnologies (in Russian) // Fizmatlit, Moscow (2007) - 416 pp.
  2. RempelA. A., Nanotechnologies. Properties and applications of nanostructured materials (in Russian) //CHEM REV.2007. v.76.435–461 pp.

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