surface (rus. поверхность) — boundary between two phases (solid-state matter, liquid, gas).


For a solid body, the nature of interatomic forces on its surface is different from that in its bulk. As a result, the equilibrium structure of the upper atomic layer formed during atomic restructuring, as a rule, differs from the corresponding structure of atomic planes in the bulk. This leads, in particular, to the appearance of unique properties inherent to the surface (for example, electronic surface states). There are two basic types of atomic surface reconstruction: relaxation and reconstruction.


  • Zotov Andrey V.
  • Saranin Alexander A.


  1. Oura K. et al. Surface Science: An Introduction // Springer, 2010 - 452 pp.