chromatography (rus. хроматография) — a physical and chemical method of separation and analysis of substances and their mixtures, which is based on their component distribution between the two phases — mobile and stationary – flowing through the stationary phase (eluent).


Depending on the type of the mobile phase, liquid and gas chromatography are distinguished. Chromatographic separation is carried out in tubes filled with sorbent (column chromatography); in capillaries of several tens of meters long, with the sorbent applied onto the walls (capillary chromatography); on adsorbent-coated plates (thin-layer chromatography, TLC); on paper (paper chromatography).

The separation of substances is based on multiple reiterations of adsorption and desorption of the mixture components in the mobile phase. Different adsorption forces result in different velocity of the mixture components when moving through the column and, consequently, different time in the column. The components are recorded at the outlet of the column using various detectors.

Chromatography is widely used in laboratories and in industry to control chemical processes and the isolation of individual substances.


Example of chromatographic separation of protein and peptide mix.
Example of chromatographic separation of protein and peptide mix.


  • Goldt Ilya V.
  • Streletskiy Alexey V.


  1. K.I. Sakodynsky Analytical chromatography (in Russian). — Moscow: Khimiya, 1993. – 464p.

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