X-ray lithography (rus. литография, рентгеновская) — technology of electronic circuits; variant of lithography, where the resist is exposed with X-ray beams.


X-ray lithography uses soft X-ray radiation with a wavelength of 0.5-4.0 nm. An X-ray beam passed through a template exposes the resist layer. Optical elements of X-ray lithographic systems may include reflecting mirrors (reflectors) on the basis of nanoheterostructures with layers of Ni-C, Cr-C, Co-C, Mo-C, W-C and zone plates; the templates are thin (1 micron and less) metal membranes. Multilayer X-ray mirrors provide the Bragg reflection if d = λ/(2sinΘ), where d is the period of the structure and Θ is the grazing angle. At perpendicular incidence of X-ray radiation an angle Θ is equal to = 90° and the period d = λ/2, therefore the thickness of each layer in the X-ray mirror is approximately equal to λ/4 or 1 nm. X-ray lithography, like optical lithography, is carried out by simultaneous exposure of numerous elements of the image, but short-wave X-rays allow an image with finer details and higher resolution to be created.


  • Gusev Alexander I.


  1. Gusev A. I. Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, and Nanotechnologies (in Russian) // Fizmatlit, Moscow (2007) - 416 pp.

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