immobilisation (rus. иммобилизация otherwise фиксация) — a process of compound fixation on the surface of the carrier.


Various fields of science use different terms to refer to the process of fixing compounds on the surface of a carrier: "immobilisation" when related to enzymes, "fixing" or "heterogenisation" in catalysis, "inoculation" in macromolecular chemistry, and "chemisorption" in classical physical chemistry. The common feature of all these different terms is that they represent a substance transfer from a homogenous mobile phase to the surface of a solid phase carrier and its fixing with use of specific interactions. The carriers (substrates, matrices) differ in their chemical nature (metals, oxides, highly crosslinked organic polymers), morphology (porous, planar, fine), structure (crystalline, amorphous), etc. Due to the presence of structural functional groups on the surface of the carrier, it gets chemically bonded with the grafted agent (modifier); this process is called the reaction of immobilisation.

In the simplest case, the surface-modified materials have the following constituent elements (see Fig.):

1) carrier;

2) surface layer of the carrier, in which the attachment occurs;

3) anchor group responsible for fixation of the grafted compound;

4) leg (linker) separating the grafted compound from the surface;

5) functional group(s) in which the properties of the grafted compounds are focused.


General layout of a surface-modified material.
General layout of a surface-modified material.


  • Goldt Anastasia E.


  1. Chemistry of grafted surface compounds / Ed. by G. V. Lisichkin (in Russian). — M.: Fizmatlit, 2003. — 592 pp.

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