gene engineering otherwise genetic engineering (rus. генная инженерия otherwise генетическая инженерия) — set of techniques, methods and technologies of gene isolation from the organism (cells), gene manipulation (including creation of recombinant RNA and DNA) and introduction of the genes into other organisms.


Genetic engineering is a tool for biotechnology. It uses methods of molecular and cell biology, cytology, genetics, microbiology and virology. Genetic engineering is used to obtain the desired qualities of the genetically modified organism. Unlike traditional selection, in which an organism undergoes changes in its genome through mutations, methods of genetic engineering allow the modification of the genome by introducing the desired (sometimes completely alien) genes. Applications of genetic engineering include the creation of genetically modified varieties of cultivated plants with new useful properties; the creation of bacteria and fungi that produce hormones, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes and other substances for the pharmaceutical and food industries; the creation of transgenic animals as “living factories” for the production of biomedical products, and new species of laboratory mice (knockout mice) for research into functioning of specific genes.

In the field of nanobiotechnology the creation of genetically engineered chimeric proteins, ion channels and biological motors with fundamentally new properties forms the basis for modern biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc.


  • Naroditsky Boris S.
  • Shirinsky Vladimir P.
  • Nesterenko Lyudmila N.


  1. B. Glick, J. Pasternak. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. — 3rd ed. Sigma Publishing, 2003, 784 pp.
  2. Nesterenko L.N., Tutykhina I.L., Shmarov M.M. et al. Prospects of biogenic nanostructures use in medicine (review) (in Russian) // 150 let so dnja rozhdenija Nikolaja Fedorovicha Gamalei. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov. — M., 2009. P. 67–79.

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