composite (rus. композит otherwise композиционный материал) — material consisting of two or more phases with a well-defined interface.


The specific mechanical properties of composites (normalised to the density) are usually much higher than the average characteristics of the original components that make up the composite. That makes the difference between composites and filled systems, in which the role of the filler is reduced to lowering the price of the final product sometimes leading to the deterioration of its mechanical properties.

Composite materials differ in the type of matrix (polymer, metal, ceramic, etc.), type of reinforcing elements, their orientation (isotropic, uniaxially oriented), etc. The mechanical properties of composites depend on the structure and properties of the interface. Thus, a strong interfacial interaction between the matrix and the fibre-filler material results in high strength of the material, and much weaker interaction ensures shock strength. In conventional composite materials the phases have micron or submicron dimensions, in nanocomposites – below 100 nm at least in one dimension. The observed tendency of filler (reinforcing element) properties to improve with decrease in its size is due to its lower macroscopic defectiveness. The physical properties of a conventional composite, in contrast to nanocomposites, can not exceed the properties of the pure components.



  1. Chvalun S.N. Polymer Nanocomposites // Priroda. – 2000. – № 7.– 22-30 pp.