Alferov, Zhores Ivanovich (rus. Алферов, Жорес Иванович) — (born in 1930) Russian physicist, the author of fundamental research works and practical developments in the field of semiconductor heterostructures, whose electronic properties depend on a combination of different semiconductors. The founder of a scientific school that created a new field of studies - heterojunctions in semiconductors. Active supporter of nanotechnology development in Russia. In 2000 together with German physicist Herbert Kroemer he won the Nobel Prize in physics for developing semiconductor heterostructures for high-speed electronics and optoelectronics. Winner of the Lenin Prize (1972), USSR State Prize (1984) and Russian State Prize (2001) for fundamental studies of formation processes and properties of heterostructures with quantum dots and creation of lasers on their basis.


In 1952 Zh.I. Alferov graduated from the Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad (Faculty of Electronics) where he was admitted without examination. Since 1953 he worked as a junior research associate in the Tuchkevich laboratory of the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, where he participated in the development of the first domestic power transistors and germanium devices. In 1959 he defended his Candidate of Science thesis on the study of germanium and silicon power rectifiers.

In the 1960's Alferov and his colleagues developed the first practicable devices based on heterostructures, including solid-state lasers. In 1970 in his Doctoral Thesis Alferov summarised his research in semiconductor heterojunctions.

In the early 1990s, Alferov was managing works on the generation and study of low-dimensional nanostructures - quantum wires and quantum dots. In 1994, the world's first heterolasers based on quantum dot structures were created under his leadership. In 1995, Alferov and his colleagues demonstrated the new quantum-dot injection heterolaser operating in continuous mode at room temperature.

Solid-state lasers based on heterostructures have laid the foundation for fibre-optic communication systems, and other heterostructure-based electronic devices have found many applications, including satellite and cellular communications.

Zhores Alferov has been the Vice-President of RAS since 1990 and an RAS Academician since 1979 (Division of General Physics and Astronomy). In 1987-2003 he was the Director of the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS, Chairman of the Presidium of the Scientific and Educational Complex "St. Petersburg Physical Technical Research and Education Centre" of the RAS, and the Chief editor of "Letters to the Journal of Technical Physics".



  • Popov Mikhail E.


  1. Zhores I. Alferov — Autobiography // The Nobel Foundation, 2000. — (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  2. Zhores Ivanovich Alferov // Institut Informacionnykh Tekhnologijj NANA, 1995. — (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  3. Zhores Alferov (Russian physicist) // Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2010. — (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  4. Zhores I. Alferov — Autobiography // The Nobel Foundation, 2000. — (reference date: 12.12.2011).

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