photonics (rus. фотоника) — A field in science and engineering that focuses on studying fundamental and applied aspects of optical signal and field generation, transmission, modulation, amplification, processing, detection and recognition, as well as application of those phenomena when developing various optical, electro-optical and optoelectronic devices.


The term photonics refers to the general science and technology field that combines laser physics, optoelectronics, electro-optics, fibre and integrated optics, nonlinear optics, optical communications, optical signal processing and holography.

Photonics involves the research and development of methods for generating, processing, storage, transmission, detection and conversion of optical signals and fields in a broad spectral range - from ultraviolet (10-380 nm) to far-infra-red (760 nm-1 mm). In most of photonics' practical applications, the visible and near infra-red wavelength range (0.4-1.6 µm) is used.

The central focus of research in photonics involves:

- physics and technology of semiconductor compounds;

- metamaterials and composite nanomaterials with new physical properties;

- semiconductor lasers and LEDs;

- physical properties and technology for producing new types of optical fibres;

- photonic crystals, their physical properties and applications;

- integrated optics materials and devices;

- nonlinear optics and new nonlinear optical materials and devices;

- optoelectronic and electro-optical devices;

- high-performance optical signal processing devices;

- the integration of photonic and electronic devices.

Photonics exists in a state of constant development: new trends, technologies and materials evolve, promising areas of application are discovered. The foundation to that process was laid by the creation and rapid deployment of fibre optic communication systems, which stimulate the technological progress in semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers and modulators, detectors and switching devices. Then the time came for data processing and storage optics, new quality of gauges and sensors to measure physical quantities, precision measurement methods, etc. Today, photonic devices are also used to display information and signaling, convert light and heat radiation into electrical energy and for other purposes.


  • Razumovsky Alexey S.
  • Nanii Oleg E.

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