fluorescent proteins (rus. флуоресцентные белки) — proteins with a typical property to give intensive luminescence in the narrow spectral range.


The most well-known fluorescent protein is the so-called Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, which fluoresces in the green range when exposed to blue light, and the yellow fluorescent protein, the genetic mutant form, with the maximum fluorescence at wavelength of 527 nm. Fluorescent proteins are used as a fluorescent tags in cell and molecular biology to study protein expression in cells and living organisms in vivo.

In modified forms GFP has been used to make biosensors, and many animals (e.g. pigs) have been created, which have GFP introduced in their genome and maintained through breeding. Also, GPF-viral vectors have been created, and the desired gene can be injected locally into the living organism and help to trace the expressed protein. In 2008, Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein GFP”.


<div>Identification of evolution of parasites producing green fluorescent protein in an insect (left
Identification of evolution of parasites producing green fluorescent protein in an insect (left) and its mid-intestine (right). Fluorescent (due to expression of green fluorescent protein) plasmodium parasites (Plasmodium berghei) can be used for quick identification of sensitive insects (for example, Anophele albimanus mosquitoes) that may potentially become vectors of dangerous infections. Authors: Frischknecht F., Martin B., Thiery I., Bourgouin C., Menard R., quoted from [5].


  • Shlyakhtin Oleg A.


  1. O.V. Stepanenko et al. Fluorescent proteins: physical-chemical properties and use in cell biology (in Russian) // Citologija. 2007. V. 49, #5. P. 395–420. — http://asb.aecom.yu.edu/faculty/verkhusha_vladislav/pdf/Stepanenko_et_al_2007.pdf
  2. Fluorescent protein // Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescent_protein (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  3. Photoactivatable fluorescent protein // Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoactivatable_fluorescent_protein (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  4. Infrared fluorescent protein // Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared_fluorescent_protein (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  5. Frischknecht F., Martin B., Thiery I. et al. Using green fluorescent malaria parasites to screen for permissive vector mosquitoes // Malaria J. 2006. V. 5. P. 23–30.