atomic (atomic-vacancy) ordering (rus. упорядочение атомное (атомно-вакансионное)) — The method to form a nanostructure in compact and disperse solid solutions (alloys) and non-stoichiometric compounds based on order-disorder structural phase transformation, which is a result of redistribution of mutually substituting components (various types of atoms or atoms and vacancies) in the lattice sites of the substitutional solid solution.


Ordering is used as a technique to make a nanostructure in compact and disperse AyB1-y solid solutions (alloys) and MXy nonstoichiometric compounds (where M is the transition d-metal, X = C, N, O, y <1.0) by means of the first kind of order-disorder phase transformation that is accompanied by the volume change. The ordering process is diffusive, and therefore transformation is not instantaneous, taking place within several dozens of minutes or hours. When cooled down from the synthesis temperature to room temperature, solid solutions or nonstoichiometric compounds pass through the ordering temperature. Due to the difference in lattice between the disordered and ordered phases, there evolve stresses in the material, which can lead to the cracking of crystallites at the interface of the disordered and ordered phases.


  • Gusev Alexander I.


  1. Gusev A. I. Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, and Nanotechnologies (in Russian) // Fizmatlit, Moscow (2007) - 416 pp.
  2. Gusev A. I., Rempel A. A. Nanocrystalline Materials. — Cambridge: Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2004. — 351 p.