(rus. биочип otherwise биологический микрочип
— 1) microarray or template with deposited molecules of proteins, nucleic acids or biological structures on a flat substrate for simultaneous detection of multiple targets in the same sample; 2) electronic device containing biological molecules.
Biochips are widely used in in vitro diagnostics. The principle of a biochip is based on molecular recognition of the analysed molecules by the biopolymer molecules deposited on the chip. Such recognition is ensured either through interaction of receptors
with ligands (e.g. antibodies
with antigens) or through hybridisation of complementary DNA
strands. In particular, biochips have been developed that recognize short oligonucleotide sequences and can detect single mutations in genes. The nanoscale length of oligonucleotides
deposited on the microchip is one of the key factors that determine their efficiency and specificity.
A schematic representation of a DNA chip's mechanism of action. Oligonucleotides become mobilized on the chip's surface. When a test sample is added, the complementary target DNA in the sample forms a duplex with the oligonucleotide on the chip (in the middle). As a result, a signal is generated confirming that the sample contains a test subject (infection, cancer-specific marker, etc.).
- Kurochkin Ilya N.
- Borisenko Grigory G.
- Osipova T., Sokolova Z., Ryabykh T. et al. Biochip-based test-system for cancer diagnostics. Simultaneous quantitation of total and free forms of prostate-specific antigene // Nanotechnology. CRC Press. Boston. V. 1–3, 2008. P. 30–33.
- About biochip-diagnostics (in Russian) // www.biochip-imb.ru, 2008. — biochip-imb.ru/diagnostics.html (reference date: 12.12.2011).