biofunctionalisised nanomaterials (rus. наноматериалы, биофункционализированные otherwise бионаноматериал; нанобиоматериал) — artificially synthesised nanoscale materials modified in such a way as to make it biocompatible with biological environments, or a nanomodified biological material.

Description

Artificially synthesised materials can sometimes be used in medicine, for example, in early disease detection, target delivery of drugs, or in repairing damaged organs and tissues.

To give such synthetic nanomaterials additional functionality, such as the capability to bind with specific proteins in a body, protection from aggregation, better solubility in water, etc., the surface of such particles is often subject to chemical modification.

Existing diagnostics techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, allow only the size and shape of an organ or tumour to be visualised. New visualisation methods involving biofunctionalisised fluorescent semiconductor markers (see fig.) appear to be very promising: ligands on the marker surface interact with proteins specific for each structure, e.g., carcinoma, cholesterol plaque, etc., and the intensive “glow” of a marker attached to this structure allows the location and texture of a paraplasm to be clearly imaged.

Iron oxide nanoparticles may potentially be used in hyperthermia – the destruction of tumours by locally heating in a magnetic field the regions affected by a disease and containing such particles. Functional groups on the surface of iron oxide particles are supposed to prevent their aggregation upon injection into the body, inhibit early dissolution of the material and ensure the targeted delivery of the particles into the affected region of the body. Another similar method that is currently growing involves the use of biofunctionalisised nanoparticles of gold (a laser is used to heat the regions where such particles are concentrated).

Another example of biofunctionalisisation is the use of calcium phosphate coatings. “Invasion” into the body of any artificial implant will in most cases be followed by an inflammatory process, which is how tissues respond to contact with foreign matter. For example, titanium implants are widely used in orthopedics due to their high strength, light weight and corrosion resistance. To make titanium implants more biologically compatible, they are coated with a ceramic coat with calcium phosphates that mimics the composition of bone tissue. This coating makes the material even less corrosive and ensures the friendly response of the bone tissue.

Illustrations

Diagram of a biofunctionalized

Diagram of a biofunctionalized quantum dot — inner shell protects the particle from oxidation, outer shell ensures stability of suspended matter and biocompatibility. Immobilized ligands control specific binding with biomolecules [1].


Author

  • Veresov Alexander G.

Sources

  1. Biofunctionalization of Nanomaterials / Ed. by Kumar, Challa S. S. R. — Weinheim: Wiley–VCH Verlag, 2005. — 386 p.
  2. The British Standard for terms BSI PAS 136:2007 / Terminology for nanomaterials.
  3. The British Standard for terms BSI PAS 132:2007 / Terminology for the bio-nano interface.

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