biotechnology (rus. биотехнология) — applying scientific and engineering principles to processing of materials by living organisms, biological systems and processes with the purpose of creating products and services.


The term “biotechnology” was coined in 1917 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky to describe an integrated process for the large scale production of pigs by using sugar beets as a fodder; until the early 1970s the term was used primarily in the food industry and agriculture. Today, “biotechnology” is generally understood to refer to the use of methods of microbiology, biochemistry, gene engineering and other biological sciences in the commercial production of various goods and services. One of the major goals of modern biotechnology is the development and production of new generation drugs and diagnosticums. Such production often uses nanobiotechnological approaches involving nanoparticles and biological nano-objects (DNA, viruses, antibodies, etc.) based on recombinant DNA technology (see recombinant structure), hybridoma (fusion of two types of cells) and trioma (successive fusion of three types of cells) techniques, etc. See also nanobiotechnology.


  • Kurochkin Ilya N.
  • Maksimenko Alexander V.


  1. B. Glick, J. Pasternak. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. — 3rd ed. Sigma Publishing, 2003, 784 pp.

Contact us