biocompatible coating (rus. покрытия, биосовместимые) — coatings which are inert to biological objects and facilitate the integration of non-biological objects in body tissues.

Description

Originally, the meaning of biocompatible coating was chemically and biologically inert materials which are safe for tissues and an organism as a whole and do not cause inflammation, rejection, necrosis or apoptosis. Thus, the coating of implants having permanent contact with blood (valves, stents) with nanometer thick carbon films reduces adhesion of blood proteins and platelets and thus reduces the risk of blood clot formation. The coating of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide with a layer of gold produces biocompatible diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles. In drug and gene therapy, polyethylene glycol coating of nanocontainers masks them from recognition and destruction by the immune system's cells and leads to an increased circulation time in the bloodstream.

Recently, the active integration of non-biological materials into the living tissues has emerged as a new approach in the field of biocompatible materials. Such integration is highly desirable, e.g. for the implantation of artificial joints, which have to maintain a long and reliable contact with body tissues. To improve contact with the femoral bone, a metallic hip joint prosthesis is coated with ceramics based on hydroxyapatite, a calcium compound which is a component of bone tissue. Another approach to integrate metal or plastic implants in biological tissue involves coating with components of extracellular matrix (fibronectin, collagen, etc.). The fibronectin protein plays a role of tissue adhesive which stimulates connective tissue cell adhesion to foreign materials. Creation of micropores and exuberant microstructures on the surface of non-biological material combined with biocoating also improves the integration process. Thus, specific modification of the biologically inert material surface can significantly improve its biocompatibility and transform it into a bioactive material.

Author

  • Shirinsky Vladimir P.

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