biomedical microelectromechanical systems (rus. микроэлектромеханические системы, биомедицинские abbr., биоМЭМС) — biomedical diagnostics and treatment devices with integrated microelectronic and micromechanical components that exploit microfluidics*) and molecular recognition technologies and have the size of 20–1000 microns.

Description

Originally, MEMS were manufactured using integrated circuit manufacturing techniques (deposition of molecular layers on a silicon chip, photolithography, etching, etc.). Later, MEMS based on microfluidics and molecular recognition technologies (such as antigen-antibody interaction, DNA hybridisation, etc.) have been developed. These systems were named biological MEMS. BioMEMS-based implants are used to monitor an organism’s internal environment with the help of biosensors and are able to deliver the required doses of drugs or hormones, e.g. inject insulin when glucose concentration in blood increases. Implantable bioMEMS may be built with wireless communication systems to interface with external devices. Devices with an integrated optical system (e.g., video pill) that can transfer real-time images of the gastrointestinal system, perform tissue biopsy operations and inject drugs in response to a radio signal have been developed. BioMEMS applications include molecular diagnostics and treatment, bioimplants, environment monitoring and bioprotection.


*) Micro-/nanofluidics is a branch of fluid dynamics that studies the behaviour of small (on the scale of micro- and nanolitre) volumes and flows of fluids.

Author

  • Shirinsky Vladimir P.

Source

  1. Desai T., Bhatia S. BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology // III: Therapeutic Micro/Nanotechnology. — Springer, 2007. — 1856 p.

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