magnetic resonance imaging abbr., MRI otherwise nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance tomography (rus. томография, магнитно-резонансная otherwise ядерная магнитно-резонансная томография abbr., МРТ) — Method of medical diagnostics based on the application of a strong magnetic field and radio-frequency radiation to visualize internal organs and tissues.

Description

MRT, as well as X-ray computed tomography, is a noninvasive technique of in vivo diagnostics. However, unlike X-ray tomography, MRT does not use high energy radiation. The method is based on measuring the response of hydrogen atom nuclei in an external magnetic field to the excitation of electromagnetic waves. The signals measured from the tissue depend on the local environment of hydrogen atoms and the saturation of tissue with such atoms (which is mainly defined by water distribution). Tissue differences in those parameters underlie visualisation.

There are several applications of nanotechnology for MRT development. One of them is a lymph node metastasis diagnostic based on the use of paramagnetic metal nanoparticles. Such particles accumulate in lymph nodes. MRT detection of nanoparticles makes it possible to visualise changes in the lymph node structure caused by a growing tumour.

Illustrations

Magnetic nanoparticles applied intravenously are carried over into the l
Magnetic nanoparticles applied intravenously are carried over into the lymphatic system and spread among lymph glands. Cancer metastases breach the structure of lymph glands, which results in abnormal distribution of nanoparticles and helps diagnose metastases with MRI [1].

Author

  • Borisenko Grigory G.

Source

  1. Harisinghani M.G., Barentsz J., Hahn P. F. et al. Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymphnode metastases in prostate cancer // N. Engl. J. Med. 2003. V. 348, №25. P. 2491–2499.

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