amplification (rus. амплификация) — (from Latin amplificatio meaning "enhancement, increase") in molecular biology – DNA copy number increase.

Description

In a cell, amplification occurs as a result of DNA replication. Amplification may occur as a response to cell exposure to certain substances (e.g., methotrexate) or as a result of specific activation of oncogenes in process of tumour development. The most widespread method of DNA copy number increase in vitro is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Less common are such methods of DNA amplification in vitro as a ligase chain reaction (LCR), nucleic acids sequence-based amplification (NASBA), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), and rolling circle amplification (RCA). Solid support for DNA primers – colloidal microgel particles – can be used to optimize the rolling circle amplification process. Colloidal particles are attractive supports because they can be dispersed in solution, giving the primer/polymerase conjugate plenty of configurational freedom for efficient amplification. The branched DNA assay (bDNA assay) method, in contrast with other methods, is not based on DNA amplification, but on signal amplification achieved via the hybridisation of the target nucleic acid to a synthetic branched DNA molecule.

In nanobiotechnology and gene engineering amplification is widely used to produce large amounts of specific DNA sequences for different applications (probes, vectors, chips, DNA molecules of defined geometric shape, etc.).

Illustrations

A schematic of circular amplification with Phi29 DNA polymerase. Polymerase molecules produce c
A schematic of circular amplification with Phi29 DNA polymerase. Polymerase molecules produce continuous copies (marked blue) of a DNA template (marked red).

Authors

  • Naroditsky Boris S.
  • Borisenko Grigory G.
  • Nesterenko Lyudmila N.

Source

  1. B. Glick, J. Pasternak. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA. — 3rd ed. Sigma Publishing, 2003, 784 pp.

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