U.S. scientists Andrew Fire and Craig Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for discovery of RNA interference. On the basis of the described mechanism, methods have been developed to suppress gene expression by short synthetic RNA duplexes. Such duplexes can be created against any mRNA because the genome sequences of many organisms, including humans, are already known. Now the use of RNA interference to treat infectious, oncological and other diseases is under active development.
Nanobiotechnology is widely used for the delivery of synthetic RNA duplexes to cells including liposomes, carbon nanotubes, self-assembling cyclodextrin-based polymer nanoparticles, etc. The surface of these nanoparticles is modified with antibodies and other vectors to ensure targeted delivery to cancer cells, intravascular lesions, etc.
Dicer fragment cuts the two-strand RNA, resulting in a siRNA. These processed RNAs combine with catalytically active proteins (nucleases, RISC). A combination of RISC and siRNA specifically decomposes mRNA and prevents translation.
- Shirinsky Vladimir P.
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