Landau, Lev (rus. Ландау, Лев Давидович) — a prominent Soviet physicist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Scientist and encyclopedist, Landau made his contribution into various fields of theoretical physics, many of his works lie in the foundation of nanotechnology.

Description

Lev Davidovich Landau was born in Baku on January 22, 1908. After graduating from the Physics Department of Leningrad University in 1927, he continued his education in Germany, Denmark, England and Switzerland. He considered Niels Bohr his research supervisor.

The first works of Landau were devoted to quantum mechanics. In 1937, Landau calculated the ratio between the level density in the nucleus and the excitation energy, and became one of the founders of the statistical theory of the nucleus. In 1957, he proposed the "law of conservation of combined parity" instead of the common law of conservation of parity violated in weak interactions. One of the central positions in Landau’s research is held by thermodynamics of the phase transitions of the second order. He created the theory of phase transitions, and in 1940-1941 he developed the theory of superfluidity of liquid helium II, which marked the beginning of the physics of quantum liquids. Further development of the physics of quantum liquids was stimulated by the creation of Bose and Fermi liquids theory in 1956. In 1950, while developing the theory of phase transitions, Landau, together with V. L. Ginzburg, constructed the theory of superconductivity. He also achieved significant results in the field of hydrodynamics, physical kinetics, and plasma physics.

An important place in Landau’s heritage is held by the Course of Theoretical Physics that he wrote together with E.M. Lifshitz.

In 1962, Landau was awarded the Nobel Prize "for pioneer research in the theory of condensed state, especially liquid helium". L.D. Landau died on April 1, 1968.

Illustrations

Lev Davidovich Landau.

Lev Davidovich Landau.


Author

  • Popov Mikhail E.

Sources

  1. Lev Landau — Biography // Nobelprize.org. 7 Jun 2010. — http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1962/landau-bio.html (reference date 12.12.2011).
  2. Landau, Lev Davidovich // online Encyclopedia «Krugosvet» (in Russian), 2001–2009. — www.krugosvet.ru/enc/nauka_i_tehnika/fizika/LANDAU_LEV_DAVIDOVICH.html (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  3. Landau, Lev Davidovich // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Landau (reference date 12.12.2011).

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