functional composites (rus. композиты, функциональные) — composites, whose functional properties, except for mechanical, can not be achieved for each of their components taken separately.

Description

The best known groups of functional composites include composites with special electrical, magnetic and optical properties. A typical example of composites with dominating importance of the electrical properties are dispersoids, in which ion transport is carried out almost entirely on the matrix-filler interphase.

Functional nanocomposites also include many modern high-temperature superconducting materials, in which the critical current is increased by introducing nanoinclusions of other phases to create additional pinning centres The effects of a giant and tunnelling magnetoresistance and devices based on them can be procured only with multi-phase structures of magnetic nanocomposites.

An important feature of many functional composites is the possibility of implementing special properties in combination (product properties). An example is the combination of the magnetostriction of phase A and the piezoelectricity of phase B resulting in the “magnetoelectric effect" in the composite.

Functional composites also include many photonic crystals, in which both the matrix and the filler are solid phases, e.g. opal and similar structures.

Functional composites also embrace many biomaterials, in which the basic functional components are protected from interaction with the environment of an organism by biocompatible coatings.

Authors

  • Mileiko Sergey T.
  • Shlyakhtin Oleg A.

Sources

  1. Benito A.M. et al. Carbon nanotubes: from production to functional composites // Int. J. Nanotechnology. 2005. V. 2. P. 71–89.
  2. Tressler J. et al. Functional composites for sensors, actuators and transducers // Composites A. 1999. V. 30. P. 477–482.

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