The genetic engineering technique involves several steps:
1. Selecting the desired (target) gene;
2. Inserting it into a genetic element capable of autonomous replication (vector);
3. Introducing the vector into the recipient organism;
4. Identifying (screening) and isolating cells that have acquired the desired gene or genes.
Proteins obtained by genetic engineering, i.e. those that resulted from the expression of recombinant DNA, are also called recombinant proteins. Recombinant DNA technology has had a significant impact on the development of modern biology, allowing the solution of many theoretical problems, for example, determining the functions of proteins, and studying the regulation of gene expression. The construction of recombinant structures was used to discover and study: mosaic gene structure in higher organisms, bacterial transposons and mobile dispersed genetic elements of higher organisms, oncogenes, etc. Recombinant structures are widely used in industrial biotechnology, including the production of enzymes, hormones, interferons, antibiotics, vitamins and many other products for pharmaceutical and food industries, which previously were very time consuming and expensive. Recombinant DNA technology was used to create genetically modified plants and transgenic animals with new useful features. Recombinant structures are used in medicine for gene therapy, diagnostics and recombinant vaccines.
Genetic recombination diagram: recombination occurs due to physical discontinuity in chromosomes (M) and (F) and their subsequent combination to form two new chromosomes (C1 and C2).
- Naroditsky Boris S.
- Shirinsky Vladimir P.
- Nesterenko Lyudmila N.
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