proteomics (rus. протеомика) — branch of science that studies protein composition of biological objects, as well as modifications and structural and functional properties of proteins.

Description

Proteomic analysis is aimed at the simultaneous identification of many individual proteins, while the entire set of proteins characterises the analysed object. Proteomics studies the synthesis, modification, and decomposition of proteins. Decoding of the human genome and the genomes of many other organisms yielded detailed protein structure databases for all human proteins and those of many other organisms, and also databases of their proteolytic fragments obtained in standard conditions, which allows proteins to be identified by the molecular weight of their proteolytic fragments. High-tech methods which make it possible to determine the quantity of a protein in a sample, identify the protein, its primary structure and post-translational modifications facilitate the further development of proteomics. Currently, most proteomic studies are performed using the 2-D PAGE method (two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). However, in the last decade, more efficient, informative and sensitive high-tech methods have become increasingly widespread, such as microsequencing of proteins, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, as well as protein microarrays with different types of detection, such as the SELDI Protein Chip. Protein microarrays are based on the strong binding of certain proteins to their specific molecules. There are interactions between antigen-antibody, receptor-ligand, DNA-protein, protein-protein, enzyme-substrate or protein-lipid. Microarrays are read and identified using mass spectrometry with laser desorption and ionisation. Currently, in medicine, proteomic analysis enables the detection of markers for cardiovascular diseases and cancer at an early stage of the disease (clinical proteomics). Clinical proteomics is the identification and quantification of individual proteins contained in a biological sample (blood serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, tissue) and the monitoring of changes in their concentrations. Proteomic analysis makes it possible to analyse up to 10 000 individual proteins in one sample and detect changes in their concentrations, which enables the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.

Authors

  • Naroditsky Boris S.
  • Shirinsky Vladimir P.
  • Nesterenko Lyudmila N.

Sources

  1. Archakov A. I. Bioinformatics , genomics, proteomics-life sciences of XXI century (in Russian). //Problems of Medical Chemistry. 2000. №1. — http://medi.ru/pbmc/8800101.htm (reference date: 12.10.2009).
  2. Conrotto P., Souchelnytskyi S. Proteomic approaches in biological and medical sciences: principles and applications // Exp. Oncol. 2008. V. 30, №3. P. 171–180.
  3. Reddy G., Dalmasso E. A. SELDI ProteinChip® Array Technology: Protein-Based Predictive // Medicine and Drug Discovery Applications. Biomed Biotechnol. 2003. V. 4. P. 237–241.

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