paramagnetism (rus. парамагнетизм) — (greek para — near) — the property of a substance to become magnetised in the direction to the external magnetic field.

Description

Paramagnetism occurs primarily due to the orientation of magnetic moments of particles (molecules, atoms or ions) contained in a substance. These moments may be governed by the orbital electron motion, the electron spin and (to a lesser degree) the nuclei spin. Exposed to an external magnetic field, certain moments align along the direction of this field, creating a summary magnetic moment proportional to the intensity of the field.

Paramagnetic substances include alkali and alkaline earth metals, aluminium, scandium, vanadium and O2 and NO gases, compounds like MnO and CuCl2; some crystalline salts of transitional elements and water solutions of these salts; free radicals; and complex compounds of transitional elements. Paramagnetics may evolve from ferromagnetics exposed to temperatures higher than the Curie point.

Author

  • Streletskiy Alexey V.

Sources

  1. Paramagnetism// Physical encyclopedia (in Russian) V. 3 / Ed. by Prokhorov A.M. — Мoscow: Bol'shaja Rossijjskaja ehnciklopedija, 1992. 531–533 pp.
  2. Paramagnet// Chemical Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian) / Ed. by Knunjanc I.L. — Мoscow: Sovetskaja ehnciklopedija, 1983. 422 pp.

Contact us