nanopharmacology (rus. нанофармакология) — an application of nanotechnology to the development and discovery of drug delivery methods.

Description

The idea of using nanoparticles to enhance efficacy of diagnostic and therapeutic drugs is based on the fact that nanoscale substances have properties distinct from those of substances in the macrodispersed form. In particular, due to the high specific surface area of nanomaterials, surface phenomena (adsorption, desorption and adhesion ) become predominant in their interaction with macromolecules or biological objects. As a result, nanoparticles may have high therapeutic efficacy without significant side effects at low concentration. Certain nanostructures, both biogenic (viral particles, capsids) and non-biogenic, are organised as a container, making them very useful for the delivery of therapeutic or diagnostic compounds (including other nanoparticles) to target cells or tissues. Specific antibodies, aptamers, receptors or specific targeting ligands provide targeted delivery of nanostructures. Nanoparticles may be used for imaging (e.g., in vivo diagnostics) in nuclear magnetic resonance (magnetic particles), plasmon resonance (nanoparticles of metals) and for the detection of fluorescence of both non-biogenic (e.g., quantum dots) and biogenic (e.g., green fluorescent protein) origin. Not all properties of nanodrugs that determine their pharmacokinetics, i.e. absorption, distribution in tissues, biotransformation and excretion, have been explored in full. A systematic study of nanomedicines is necessary to identify their treatment capabilities and possible health hazards.

Authors

  • Naroditsky Boris S.
  • Shirinsky Vladimir P.
  • Nesterenko Lyudmila N.

Sources

  1. Nanopharmacology.com, 2004–2006 —www.nanopharmacology.com (reference date: 12.10.2009).
  2. Nanopharmaceutix.com, 2004–2006. —www.nanopharmacology.com (reference date: 12.10.2009).
  3. Nanotechnologies. ABC for everyone(in Russian)// Ed. by Tret'jakov Ju. D. — Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2008. — 368 p.

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