(rus. материал, наноструктурированый otherwise наноматериал
— condensed material, in whole or in part composed of structural elements (particles, grains, crystallites, fibres, rods, layers) with the characteristic dimensions from several nanometers to several tens of nanometers; the long-range order in the structural elements is highly disturbed and therefore the short-range order determines multiparticle correlations in the arrangement of atoms in these elements; all macroscopic properties of the material are determined by the size and/or mutual arrangement of structural elements.
The main types of nanostructured materials based on the dimensions of their structural elements are: zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nanomaterials. Zero-dimensional nanomaterials include nanocluster materials and nanodispersions, i.e. materials in which nanoparticles
are isolated from each other. One-dimensional nanomaterials are nanofibre
(nanorod) and nanotubular materials with fibre (rod, tube) length from 100 nm to tens of microns. Two-dimensional nanomaterials are films (coatings) with nanometer thickness. Structural elements in 0D, 1D and 2D nanomaterials can be distributed in a liquid or solid macroscopic matrix or be applied on a substrate
. Three-dimensional nanomaterials include powders, fibrous, multilayer and polycrystalline materials in which the 0D, 1D and 2D structural elements are in close contact with each other and form interfaces. An important type of three-dimensional nanostructured materials is a compact or consolidated (bulk) polycrystal with nanosize grains, whose entire volume is filled with those nanograins, free surface
of the grains is practically absent, and there are only grain interfaces. The formation of such interfaces and "disappearance" of the nanoparticle (nanograin) surface is the fundamental difference between three-dimensional compact nanomaterials and nanocrystalline powders with various degrees of agglomeration
that consist of particles of the same size as the compact nanostructured materials.
Types of nanocrystalline materials by size of their structural elements: 0D (zero-dimensional) clusters; 1D (one-dimensional) nanotubes, fibers and rods; 2D (two-dimensional) films and coats; 3D (three-dimensional) polycrystals.
- Gusev A. I. Nanomaterials, Nanostructures, and Nanotechnologies (in Russian) // Fizmatlit, Moscow (2007) - 416 pp.
- Gusev A. I., Rempel A. A. Nanocrystalline Materials. — Cambridge: Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2004. — 351 p.
- The British Standard for terms BSI PAS-132 / Nanomaterial. The British Standard for terms BSI PAS-132 / Nanostructured.