nanoionics (rus. наноионика) — a branch of solid-state chemistry and physics that studies specific properties, phenomena, effects and processes related to the ion transport in solid-state nanoscale systems.


A decrease in the size of the elements comprising a system usually has several effects. First, it leads to a substantial increase in the proportion of atoms at the phase interface whose coordination and electron state differ from those of bulk atoms. This results in a quick growth of diffusion rates (including fast surface diffusion) and a surge in diffusion flux volume. These changes also affect the sorption properties of nano-objects and the distribution of charge carriers between the ion carrying phase (e.g., electrolyte) and nano-objects. Second, the thermodynamic characteristics of the system containing nanoscale objects alter, which gives way to new scenarios of redistribution of charge carriers in the system. Third, a variation (distortion) of energy levels at the phase interface becomes possible.

All these effects are currently used in the purposeful development of organised nanoscale systems – nanocomposites, as well as for artificial organisation, for instance, of biological systems with fast ion transport. These systems may include special ion transport routes (channels) that appear as a result of artificial spatial organisation of a nanocomposite material, as well as micro-/nanoregions with gradient of system components concentration, which may be used to create supercapacitors, effective chemical current sources, fast ion conductors and ion channels.


A prototype of electrochemical memory cell whose performance involves generation and use of silve

A prototype of electrochemical memory cell whose performance involves generation and use of silver nanoparticles. Application of voltage between silver and platinum electrodes causes migration of silver ions within the oxide layer separating these electrodes and generation between the electrodes of a stable conducting chain of silver nanoparticles. When potential of the electrodes is reversed, this chain becomes broken, and the cell's electric resistance changes abruptly. Authors: R. Waser, I. Valov, FZ Juelich, Juelich, Germany. Published with permission of ECS — The Electronic Society.


  • Goodilin Evgeny A.
  • Shlyakhtin Oleg A.


  1. Nanoionics // Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. — (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  2. Despotuli A. L., Nikolaichic V. I. A step towards nanoionics // Solid State Ionics. 1993. V. 60. 275– 278 pp.
  3. Maier J. Nanoionics: ion transport and electrochemical storage in confined systems // Nature Materials. 2005. V. 4. 805–815 pp.
  4. Waser R., Valov I. Electrochemical reactions in nanoionics: towards future resistive switching memories // J. Electrochem. Soc. 2009. V. 25, №6. 431–437 pp.

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