nanodiamond (rus. наноалмаз otherwise ультрадисперсные алмазы abbr., УДА; НА) — a carbon nanocrystal material with crystal structure of a diamond.

Description

A nanodiamond crystallite is made up of a diamond core (sized 1-10 nm) containing carbon atoms in the sp3-hybrid state shielded by a carbon onion cover containing carbon atoms in the sp2-hybrid state. A hybrid layer may occur between the core and the cover that may contain carbon atoms in both sp3 and sp2 hybridisation states.

The first nanodiamonds were synthesised in the USSR, and their commercial production began in late 1980s. The feedstock for their production is carbon contained in explosive materials. The high pressure and temperature environments required to form the structure of diamond are achieved in an explosion. Nanodiamonds have been found in natural environments in meteor craters.

Nanodiamonds have found application in the development of abrasive composite nanomaterials, components of nanoelectronics devices, selective adsorbents and catalysts and biomedical products with unique mechanical properties. Nanodiamonds are used as additives in engine oils that help extend the life of engines.

Today the term “nanodiamond” is also used to denote crystalline grains of polycrystalline diamond films obtained through physical vapour deposition.

Illustrations

Schematic representation of nanodiamond crystallite. Authors: A.Ya. Vul', A.E. Alexenskii, A.T.
Schematic representation of nanodiamond crystallite. Authors: A.Ya. Vul', A.E. Alexenskii, A.T. Dideykin [4].

Author

  • Zaitsev Dmitry D.

Sources

  1. A.Ya. Vul'. Detonation nanodiamonds. New challenges of time and applications (in Russian) // Thesis. II International Nanotechnology Forum, October 2009.
  2. Detonation nanodiamond // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detonation_nanodiamond (reference date: 12.12.2011).
  3. Dolmatov V.Yu. Ultradisperse diamonds of detonation synthesis: production, properties and applications (in Russian) // Publisher: St. Petersburg, Politechnical university. 2003. - 344 pp.
  4. Vul Ya., Aleksenskiy A. E., Dideykin A. T. Detonation nanodiamonds: technology, properties and applications // Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, 2009. — 991 p. Ed. by V. N. Kharkin, C. Bai, S.-C. Kim. In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. — Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, 2009.

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