polymer composites (rus. композиты с полимерной матрицей otherwise полимерные композиты) — composites, whose matrix is formed of a high molecular compound.

Description

Matrices of those composite materials can be formed of various polymers, such as thermoplastics (polyolefins, aliphatic and aromatic polyamides, PTFE, etc.), thermosets (phenoplasts, aminoplasts , epoxy, polyester, organosilicon and other polymeric binders), elastomers (vulcanised natural rubber, butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, butyl rubber and other rubbers). The use of fillers can alter the mechanical, electromagnetic, physical and chemical characteristics of the original polymer, and, in some cases, can reduce the cost of the final composite, as compared to the cost of the polymer, through using a filler that is cheaper than the polymer, e.g. chalk.

Many commonly used materials are composite polymeric materials, e.g. general-purpose construction materials on the basis of thermosets with fibrous fillers, car tires, dental fillings, and various coatings.

Polymer nanocomposites form a special class of polymer composite materials. Fillers added to polymer matrices differ both in chemical composition and in morphology of individual elements. A distinctive feature of these fillers is the size of their constituent elements (particles, plates, fibres, etc.), which should be below 100 nm (see nanofiller).

The properties of such composites can be changed by a very small change in concentration of the filler due to its large specific surface area and intense intermolecular interaction with the polymer. Currently, new methods are being developed for obtaining and studying the properties of various polymer nanocomposites (see, for example, crazing in polymers, exfoliation).

Authors

  • Khokhlov Alexey R.
  • Govorun Elena N.

Sources

  1. Bedanokov A.J. et al. Polymer nanocomposites: The current state of the issue. (in Russian) — http://rusnanotech08.rusnanoforum.ru/sadm_files/disk/Docs/2/43/43%20(26).pdf (reference date: 25.09.09).
  2. Battle for the rubber: Where does tire begin? (in Russian) // Online Magazine "Populjarnaja mekhanika", February 2008. —www.popmech.ru/article/2923-bitva-za-rezinu/ (reference date: 25.09.09).
  3. Perepelkin K. E. Polymer composites based on chemical fibers, main types, features and practical use(in Russian)// Rustm.Net. —www.rustm.net/catalog/article/185.html (reference date: 25.09.09).
  4. Mikitaev A. et al. Polymer Nanocomposites: Variety of Structural Forms and Applications. —Nova Science Publishers, 2009. — 319 pp.

Contact us